Hungry is a Republic state based on parliamentary democracy. Hungry (official name: Republic of Hungry) held its first free parliamentary election in 1990 after years of communist rule.
The chief of state is the President who is elected by the country’s National Assembly for a five year term. President is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, but his role is largely ceremonial. Prime Minister is the head of the government and holds executive powers which include implementation of the law in the country and running the day-to-day affairs. Prime Minister and Council of Ministers (the cabinet) are elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the President, to serve four-year terms.
The legislature is unicameral. The parliament called National Assembly has 386 seats; with its members elected by a popular vote under a system of proportional and direct representation to serve four-year terms. The executive branch of government is directly or indirectly dependent on the support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. Prime Minister cannot directly dissolve the parliament but can recommend the same to President who can take a decision after consultations with the various political parties. The citizens of Hungary have considerable political rights.
Judiciary is largely independent. Though limited budgetary resources leave country’s judicial system vulnerable to outside influence, but this is being improved as required by EU membership with new spending. The main source of the law in Hungary is the constitution of 1949 which has gone through major amendments in 1989 and 1997. The country’s legal system originates from the rule of law based on Western model. Hungry being a member of the European Union, the national law in the country needs to comply with the conditions of the Community legislation.
Hungry accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations. The judicial language in the country is Hungarian. Hungry is ruled by law. Foreign nationals can largely expect a fair trial from the country’s judicial system. There is a considerable degree of corruption in the country, especially in government departments and corporate sector. Though government has taken necessary measures to introduce stronger penalties for bribery and implement a long-term anticorruption strategy, but challenges still remain.
Major political parties
The political landscape in Hungary is dominated by two major parties, which makes it difficulty for anybody to achieve electoral success under the banner of any other party. However, since no party can form a government without a coalition partner, the system can be considered a multi-party system. The two major parties are:
- MSzP (Hungarian Socialist Party) – advocates socialist ideology, follows moderate communist ideology,
- Fidesz (Hungarian Civic Alliance) - centre-right, conservative, nationalist, Christian-democratic party,
- KDNP (Christian Democratic People's Party) - left-wing but democratic and anti-communist,
- SzDSz (Alliance of Free Democrats) – a liberal party, draws support mainly from the city population.
Major political leaders
President: Laszlo SOLYOM (since August 2005) – non-partisan
Prime Minister: Ferenc GYURCSANY (since September 2004, re-elected in April 2006) – MSzP, heading a coalition government with partner SzDSz
Next political election dates
Presidential: June 2010
National Assembly: April 2010