In a context where global foreign investment increased by 10.9% in 2013, in particular in Europe (+25.2%) and in Latin America (+17.5%), FDI flows to developing economies reached a new high of US$759 billion. However macroeconomic fragility and policy uncertainties are driving investors to caution.
The government, which launched a number of privatization programs to attract foreign investors, benefited from spectacular FDI flows before the global financial crisis (more than EUR 9 billion in 2007 and almost EUR 14 billion in 2008). However, the financial crisis had a negative effect on FDI flows coming into Romania: they dropped by 50% in 2009 and have been decreasing since. To counter the effects of the crisis, the country received a 13 billion EUR aid package from the IMF and another in 2011, in order to deal with the challenges it needs to overcome.
In 2013 FDI in Romania reached only USD 2.5 billion.
The distribution of foreign direct investment by sectors is led by the industrial sector (more than one third of the total), in which the metallurgy industry stands out. Other activity sectors have attracted investors such as banking and insurance, wholesale and retail, energy, construction and telecommunications. The regions which attract the most foreign capital are, in order of importance: Bucharest (more than 60% of the total), the country's center and the south. Romania has numerous advantages: in addition to a large domestic market, the country has a strong industrial tradition, coupled with a cost of labor among the lowest in the EU. This has been the reason for the development of a significant industrial sector, particularly car making, but also of the services .
In 2013, the main investors in Romania have been France, Austria, the Netherlands, Germany and the Czech Republic. The Czech company CEZ has invested over EUR 1 billion since 2011, in order to install a park of 240 wind turbines near the Black Sea.
Information on the 2013 FDI influx in this region can be accessed in the Global Investment Trade Monitor published in January 2014 by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).
|Romania||Eastern Europe & Central Asia||United States||Germany|
|Index of Transaction Transparency*||9.0||7.0||7.0||5.0|
|Index of Manager’s Responsibility**||5.0||5.0||9.0||5.0|
|Index of Shareholders’ Power***||6.0||9.0||5.0|
|Index of Investor Protection****||6.0||5.9||8.3||5.0|
Source: Doing Business - Last Available Data.
Note: *The Greater the Index, the More Transparent the Conditions of Transactions. **The Greater the Index, the More the Manager is Personally Responsible. *** The Greater the Index, the Easier it Will Be For Shareholders to Take Legal Action. **** The Greater the Index, the Higher the Level of Investor Protection.
|Foreign Direct Investment||2011||2012||2013|
|FDI Inward Flow (million USD)||2,522||2,748||3,617|
|FDI Stock (million USD)||71,344||78,010||84,596|
|Performance Index*, Ranking on 181 Economies||88||-||-|
|Potential Index**, Ranking on 177 Economies||39||-||-|
|Number of Greenfield Investments***||249||198||209|
|FDI Inwards (in % of GFCF****)||5.3||6.1||7.1|
|FDI Stock (in % of GDP)||39.1||46.1||44.6|
Source: UNCTAD - Last Available Data.
Note: * The UNCTAD Inward FDI Performance Index is Based on a Ratio of the Country's Share in Global FDI Inflows and its Share in Global GDP. ** The UNCTAD Inward FDI Potential Index is Based on 12 Economic and Structural Variables Such as GDP, Foreign Trade, FDI, Infrastructures, Energy Use, R&D, Education, Country Risk. *** Green Field Investments Are a Form of Foreign Direct Investment Where a Parent Company Starts a New Venture in a Foreign Country By Constructing New Operational Facilities From the Ground Up. **** Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) Measures the Value of Additions to Fixed Assets Purchased By Business, Government and Households Less Disposals of Fixed Assets Sold Off or Scrapped.
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Last Updates: December 2014